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Dead Birds, Data Mining, and Dark Matter

By Livia Gershon

We’re killing all the birds (New York Times)
by John W. Fitzpatrick and Peter P. Marra
Since 1970, populations of wild birds in the U.S. and Canada have declined by a third as humans have wrecked their habitats. Even scarier, we only know this because scientists have been counting birds for a long time. The study probably reflects an even bigger crisis that also includes many species that we don’t monitor as closely.

Data mining your medical records (Wired)
by Megan Molteni
The Mayo Clinic is working with Google on a plan that would mine enormous troves of patient records using AI. The effort could new yield ways to predict and prevent serious disease. It could also be a huge threat to patient privacy.

Studying physics and learning about bias (Public Books)
by Lawrence Ware
Dr. Chandra Prescod-Weinstein is a theoretical physicist who does pen-and-paper calculations to advance humanity’s understanding of dark matter. As a black woman, she’s also—perhaps inescapably—become an expert in the impact of racism and sexism in physics.

Why we all need to know statistics (Aeon)
by David Spiegelhalter
What’s the cost of being part of the EU? Just how bad for your health is bacon? Statistics isn’t always taught in ways that help us connect math to real-world problems, but when it is, it can help us understand the world, be better citizens—and even catch a serial killer.

Do strikes work? (The Washington Post)
by Laura C. Bucci
It’s not just the UAW—strikes are on the rise in the U.S. today. And there’s reason to believe they are becoming increasingly effective.

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Pain, Prohibition, and #CursedImages

By The Editors

An emotional cure for pain (NPR)
by Patti Neighmond
For many chronic pain patients, standard cures do little good. Some are finding that what does help is delving into childhood traumas to reshape mental functioning.

Wait, did Prohibition actually work? (Vox)
by German Lopez
Everyone knows Prohibition failed, right? Actually, for all its problems, banning alcohol reduced drinking, improved some aspects of public health, and may have reduced violent crime. What does this suggest about drug and alcohol policy today?

Why we love to hate #CursedImages (Wired)
by Emma Grey Ellis
On the internet, #CursedImages are everywhere. Why do we click and share photos that disturb, confuse, and horrify us? It has to do with the appeal of novelty and the drive to investigate ambiguity and danger.

How wine shaped Marxism (Atlas Obscura)
by Reina Gattuso
Before Karl Marx was a revolutionary philosopher, he was a heavy-drinking, trouble-making student. In fact, his concern for the vineyards of the Mosel River Valley may have inspired his turn toward economic thinking.

The history of birthright citizenship (The Washington Post)
by Marixa Lasso
Birthright citizenship is under attack in the United States. To understand what that means, we need to look at how the concept was born—in Colombia and other nations emerging from Spanish colonialism—and how it spread to the U.S. That history has a lot to do with fighting racism and coping with the legacy of slavery.

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D-Day, Cricket Gourds, and Modern Lesbians

By The Editors

D-Day tricks and modern spycraft (The Washington Post)
by Danielle Lupton
Tricks and secrecy were crucial elements of the D-Day invasion of Normandy. Seventy-five years later, reconnaissance satellites, drones, and social media make a strategy like that impossible to replicate.

Gourds were stages for private cricket concerts (Atlas Obscura)
by Claire Voon
Since the Tang Dynasty, some Chinese people have prized domesticated crickets for their songs. Artisans designed specially grown and intricately decorated gourds with the perfect acoustics to showcase the tiny musicians.

What does it mean to be a “modern lesbian”? (Longreads)
by Jeanna Kadlec
Anne Lister, the inspiration for the show Gentleman Jack, is sometimes called the first modern lesbian. What does that mean for our understanding of Lister and other women who loved, married, and had sex with women before the twentieth century?

Dancing toward understanding (Aeon)
by Kimerer LaMothe
Every human culture has a dance tradition. But why? Imitating and creating movements together may be a key to human survival and continuing adaptation.

Elephants have an astonishing sense of smell (The New York Times)
by Veronique Greenwood
When researchers want to see how well animals can estimate quantities, they typically give them two sets of objects to look at. But elephants can figure it out even with closed containers, just by sniffing with their trunks.

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Hospital Bills, Intersectionality, and Civilizational Collapse

By The Editors

Where did that huge hospital bill come from? (The Conversation)
by Simon F. Haeder
Even people with good health insurance keep getting stuck with big medical bills. That’s the result of clashes between huge, consolidated medical and insurance companies where patients’ financial wellbeing can end up as collateral damage.

Intersectionality in theory and practice (Vox)
by Jane Coaston
“Intersectionality” is a buzzword on the left and a punching-bag on the right. But the way it’s represented today often bears little resemblance to its origins as a legal concept developed by the scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw.

Just how bad is the collapse of a civilization? (Aeon)
by Luke Kemp
Civilizational collapse sounds like a pretty bad thing, right? Actually, in many historical instances, it may not have been so bad for the masses of people who lived at the bottom rung of civilized societies.

What good is making art? (Pacific Standard)
by Michelle Weldon
For many people busy with work and family responsibilities, the idea of finding the time to make art might seem absurd. But research suggests just how valuable it can be.

Abortion and eugenics revisited (The Atlantic)
by Adam Cohen
Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas’s recent concurring opinion on Indiana’s abortion law warned against abortion’s potential to be a tool of eugenics. But, as the author of a book on eugenics that Thomas cited explains, that’s not really the way that the history of eugenics ties into modern politics.

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Chocolate Science, Boy Trees, and Robot Artists

By The Editors

The science of chocolate (The New York Times)
by Veronique Greenwood
Conching, the process of transforming gritty cacao powder into smooth chocolate, was invented in 1879. But, until a recent study, scientists didn’t totally understand how it works. Turns out, it’s a lot like mixing cement.

The trouble with boy trees (Atlas Obscura)
by Sabrina Imbler
Allergies driving you crazy? You may be a victim of “botanical sexism,” the exclusive planting of male trees, which plagues many cities.

When AI gets creative (Vox)
by Sigal Samuel
Computers can now create music that audiences can’t distinguish from Bach’s work. Artists might find that unsettling, but they could eventually find that AI is a good partner in their creative work.

Can aging be stopped? (Slate)
by Erika Hayasaki
A genetic disorder diagnosed mainly in Japan makes people show signs of old age while they’re still young. If scientists find a cure, could it help slow aging for all of us?

Life as a collective (The Cut)
by Katie Heaney
Multiple personality disorder is a controversial, much-misunderstood condition. What is it actually like to understand yourself as a group of individuals rather than a single point of view?

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The post Chocolate Science, Boy Trees, and Robot Artists appeared first on JSTOR Daily.

Knotweed, Scary Sounds, and Mass Extinctions

By Livia Gershon

The knotweed invasion (Slate)
by Henry Grabar
It tears up homes’ foundations and creeps up through floors, wrecks native ecosystems, and has been accused of contributing to madness. It’s Japanese knotweed, and it’s spreading across much of the country.

Why that soundtrack is so scary (Quartz)
by Adam Epstein
In the soundtracks for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Game of Thrones, you’ve probably noticed that a sustained sound makes listeners tense up in expectation of something very bad. A musicologist explains the many uses of the “drone of dread.”

A million species on the brink (NBC News)
by Denise Chow
Over the past fifty years, species have gone extinct tens to hundreds of times as fast as they typically did over the previous ten million years. A new U.N. report anticipates a million more extinctions in the coming decades.

Is this the first climate change-driven epidemic? (Vox)
by Julia Belluz
Chronic kidney disease is on the rise in Central America—and in India, Southeast Asia, and possibly California and Florida too. Could rising temperatures be to blame?

A 1,000-year-old psychedelic brew (National Geographic)
by Erin Blakemore
A pouch found at an archeological site in Bolivia contains the earliest known materials for an ayahuasca psychoactive brew along the lines of what people in the Amazon basin continue to use today.

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The post Knotweed, Scary Sounds, and Mass Extinctions appeared first on JSTOR Daily.

Pandas, Potlucks, and Planetary Cooling

By The Editors

For pandas, bamboo is like steak (The Atlantic)
by Ed Yong
Giant pandas can come across like a vegetarian stereotype, dopily chewing bamboo rather than feasting on flesh like their grizzly cousins. But it turns out the bits of bamboo they seek out are less like a salad than a high-protein Impossible Burger, allowing the pandas to feed their carnivore-ish digestive systems.

The potluck is political (Atlas Obscura)
by Reina Gattuso
Since before Stonewall, potluck meals have been a central feature in lesbian political organizing. Cheap food, often served in private settings, has helped catalyze movements of women who lacked financial and social resources in their larger communities.

Could a conspiracy cool the planet? (Pacific Standard)
by Dave Levitan
The world’s nations may never unite to fight climate change. What if a handful of billionaires decided to do it themselves, unilaterally shooting sulfur into the atmosphere to cool the planet, heedless of unintended consequences?

Moon-mania (The New Yorker)
by Rivka Galchen
Fifty years after the first manned moon landing—and forty-seven years after the most recent one—countries and companies around the world are racing to be part of lunar exploration. They are vying for opportunities to do basic scientific research, collect energy and other resources, and build a launch pad into deeper space.

Pursuing resilience by not drowning (Quartz)
by Natasha Frost
Want to cultivate resilience, self-compassion, and coaching skills? A two-minute exercise in your local swimming pool, making use of our instincts for surviving in the water, might help.

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Root Canals, Cargo Cults, and Laser Mapping Notre Dame

By The Editors

Do you really need a root canal? (The Atlantic)
by Ferris Jabr
From the over-cautious scheduling of frequent cleanings to horror stories of unnecessary procedures, dental overtreatment is a common problem. Dentistry suffers from too little evidence to support specific procedures and too many incentives to err on the side of doing them anyway.

The myth and reality of cargo cults (Topic)
by Brooke Jarvis
“Cargo cults” were a major topic in twentieth-century anthropology, probably partly because white scholars could see them as proof of their own superior culture. But the term describes a range of real dynamic and complex belief systems, like the understanding of a mysterious man named John Frum in the Republic of Vanuatu.

The laser mapping that could help restore Notre Dame Cathedral (CNN)
by Michelle Lou and Brandon Griggs
In 2015, Vassar College art professor Andrew Tallon mapped Paris’s Notre Dame Cathedral using 3D laser scanning. Now, his measurements could help in the restoration of the intricate building.

How drinking held an empire together (Atlas Obscura)
by Reina Gattuso
The South American Wari Empire, which came long before the rise of the Inca, was multiethnic, multilingual, and expansive. To hold the people together, Wari elites held summits at a brewery where leaders of diverse groups shared a spicy alcoholic brew while they talked politics.

Why puberty is starting younger (Scientific American)
by Virginia Sole-Smith
The age that girls enter puberty has dropped significantly in recent decades. Possible reasons include the rising use of plastics, calorie-dense diets, and trauma. The implications for girls’ lives in adolescence and beyond are worrying.

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The post Root Canals, Cargo Cults, and Laser Mapping Notre Dame appeared first on JSTOR Daily.

Black Holes, Plastic Bags, and AI Diets

By Livia Gershon

Beyond the black hole picture (FiveThirtyEight)
by Maggie Koerth-Baker
The world’s first picture of a black hole was made possible by some incredible technology and innovative methods of scientific collaboration. The process could change how researchers solve problems on Earth, too.

The trouble with bag bans (NPR)
by Greg Rosalsky
Banning plastic grocery bags is a good solution to unsightly plastic in fences and trees. But when it comes to large-scale environmental problems, the bans run into trouble.

Should you let a computer tell you what to eat? (The Cut)
by Edith Zimmerman
A diet that’s healthy for one person may be a bad idea for someone else. Artificial intelligence could help—if we’re willing to give it enormous amounts of data about ourselves.

Where Sudanese soldiers’ loyalty lies (Washington Post)
by Jean-Baptiste Gallopin
As protest shifts toward all-out popular uprising in Sudan, the outcome of the conflict may come down to which side individual members of military and police forces join. And that, previous conflicts suggest, will depend on who looks most likely to win.

What’s killing black abalone? (Hakai Magazine)
by Drew Harvell
As warming global temperatures and species extinctions disrupt ecosystems, diseases often find ways to spread more easily. In the ocean, where pathogens can swim in the water, it’s a particularly troubling problem.

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Cat Names, Doubt Machines, and Christianity’s Future

By The Editors

Cats know more than they let on (Scientific American)
by Jim Daley
A new study finds that cats recognize their own names—at least from the mouths of their human companions. But that doesn’t mean they’ll come when called.

Building a doubt machine (Aeon)
by Hakwan Lau
One way of improving machine learning is pitting a network that generates images against another network that tries to determine whether they’re real or fake. This bears a striking resemblance to the way our minds use sensory perception and preexisting knowledge.

Christianity’s future is African (Quartz)
by Yomi Kazeem
By 2060, six African countries will be home to almost a quarter of the world’s Christians. Already, the growth of Christian institutions, including megachurches that are almost cities, is transforming much of the continent.

Do cooking and cleaning wreck our lungs? (The New Yorker)
by Nicola Twilley
Cooking Thanksgiving dinner generates levels of indoor pollution worse than outdoor air in the most polluted cities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the chemical reactions happening as we go about our days indoors, mopping, cooking, and just breathing.

Don’t worry about scientific literacy (Fivethirtyeight)
by Maggie Koerth-Baker
Did you hear about that survey that shows how many Americans don’t know basic science facts? It turns out it’s not as bad as you might think. More importantly, being science-savvy doesn’t lead to adopting science-backed policy ideas anyway.

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The post Cat Names, Doubt Machines, and Christianity’s Future appeared first on JSTOR Daily.

CRISPR Cows, Unscientific Medicine, and New Nuclear Energy

By The Editors

Livestock in the time of CRISPR (Wired)
by Gregory Barber
Emerging genetic engineering techniques could transform cattle and chickens, making the production of animal products more humane, or just more brutally efficient.

The trouble with mental illness (The Atlantic)
by Gary Greenberg
From inducing comas with insulin to prescribing Prozac, psychiatry has always offered solutions to mental illness without a clear model of how they were supposed to work. That’s a problem for practitioners who want to present their work as strictly scientific.

Will nuclear power make a comeback? (Pacific Standard)
by Kate Wheeling
U.S. public opinion turned against nuclear power in the wake of the Three Mile Island crisis. Could the threat of climate change convince us to embrace nuclear energy again?

What does it mean to be educated about sex? (Nursing Clio)
by Joseph Gamble
The new show “Sex Education” reveals how much conventional Sex Ed misses about where sexuality fits into the complicated lives of young people.

The new-body gene (The New York Times)
by Heather Murphy
The master control gene known as E.G.R. helps transform a worm cut into thirds into three worms. It probably won’t help people grow new limbs, or a whole new body, anytime soon, but the possibilities are intriguing.

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The post CRISPR Cows, Unscientific Medicine, and New Nuclear Energy appeared first on JSTOR Daily.

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